This book explores an institutional framework for environmental governance. Starting from the assumption that governments can facilitate the sustainability of resource management by state and non-state actors through the structuring of decision contexts, the analyses combined in the book explore determinants of environmental stewardship with particular emphasis on the structure and quality of property rights. In pursuit of their objectives, the analyses build on previous research on determinants of environmental quality, critically examine findings and claims on the existence of an environmental Kuznets curve, and draw linkages to the literatures on government capacity and collective action. In addition, the book substantially extends the state of the knowledge on the environmental implications of property rights, integrating economic and political dimensions and establishing links between previously unconnected research areas in environmental politics, environmental economics, and resource management.
These analyses tend to face substantial difficulties, for instance in terms of data
availability and quality, questions of methodology, and problems with the
inclusion of ecological aspects such as ecosystem resilience or irreversibility of
Working Group I Contribution to the Fourth Assessment Report of the IPCC
What is happening to the climate? Climate Change 2007 - The Physical Science Basis is the most comprehensive and up-to-date scientific assessment of past, present and future climate change. This report has been produced by some 600 authors from 40 countries, over 620 experts and a large number of government reviewers. Providing insights into the effects of human activity on the atmosphere, and containing an evaluation of observed climatic changes using the latest measurement techniques, the report also includes a detailed review of climate change observations and modelling for every continent as well as the first probabilistic evaluation of climate model simulations. Simply put, this latest summary from the IPCC forms the standard scientific reference for all those concerned with climate change and its consequences, including students and researchers in environmental science, meteorology, climatology, biology, ecology and atmospheric chemistry, and policy makers in governments and industry worldwide.
Figure 6.10a shows two instrumental compilations representing the mean annual
surface temperature of the NH since 1850, one based on land data only, and one
using land and surface ocean data combined (see Chapter 3).
The global crisis of 2008 highlighted the need to understand financial interconnectedness among the various sectors of an economy and between them and their counterparties in the rest of the world. However, application of this kind of analysis has been hampered by the lack of adequate data. This paper sets the background for promoting internationally coordinated efforts for compiling and disseminating data on sectoral financial positions and flows on a from-whom-to-whom basis within the framework of the System of National Accounts. It draws on actual experiences in compiling these kinds of data and provides guidelines for their development in the future.
The main source data for the compilation of the BSA are the Standardized Report
Form (SRFs) for monetary and financial statistics reported monthly to the IMF's
Statistics Department (STA). As of 2011, 32 countries report data for the monetary
Budgeting: A Comprehensive Guide shows you how to assemble a complete system of budgets while also addressing several variations on the basic budgeting concept - the flexible budget and the zero-base budget. The book also delves into how to operate a business without a budget. Finally, there are a number of procedures, controls, and reports designed to complement a budget. There are review questions and answers at the end of every chapter.
The book also delves into how to operate a business without a budget. Finally, there are a number of procedures, controls, and reports designed to complement a budget. There are review questions and answers at the end of every chapter.